Our trip to Nairobi

It has been a few weeks since I have posted, but it has been a busy few weeks. Most importantly for us, we went to Nairobi, Kenya for the weekend on Friday November 18 to meet our friends, who were visiting us from the US. Together, we returned to Zanzibar on Sunday November 20 with our friends and hosted them for the week here during their Thanksgiving vacation.  We had a fantastic time with them and did some of the tourist things that we don’t normally do, but saved some touristy opportunities for other visitors.


We visited the David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust to see elephants.

Here are a few highlights from our trip to Nairobi.


This is Esampu, the elephant that I adopted. She is greedy and likes to eat a lot. They also said she was naughty.


It was a very rainy day, but the elephants and us still had fun.

We went to the Giraffe Center.




This one likes me a lot.

We also did a safari in Nairobi National Park.


It is rare to see the rhinos up close. There are fewer than 10 left in this park.


Zebras seen from the restaurant we ate at next to the park.

I will share the highlights from the time in Zanzibar later in the week.

Boats and rain, do I sense a water theme?


Over the last two days, I have had so much fun teaching my classes and doing a training at a local school. For the US Fulbright Scholar grants, different countries have different sets of responsibilities: some are teaching grants, some are research grants, and some countries expect scholars to do both teaching and research. All Tanzanian Fulbright US Scholar grants are both teaching and research grants and I am very happy about this. Because in my regular position as a professor, I do research, teaching, and service, I am happy to have the opportunity to do all three here as well. In terms of service, I hope to have some small role in building the capacity of teachers and teacher educators during my time in Zanzibar.

I am teaching two classes this semester: Teaching Science and Mathematics in Early Childhood Education and Observation and Reflection. Observation and Reflection is similar to a pre-practicum or a field experience class. The students spend some time in the seminar with me and some observing in schools. Of course, several of the students are currently teachers in schools, some at the pre-primary level. Because I have the same 30 students in my two classes, I can link content and really get to know my students.

As part of my science class, I wanted to start the semester focusing on inquiry skills and thinking of ways to incorporate open and focused explorations into lessons. I wanted them thinking about how to teach children the necessary content for exams through fun investigations and explorations. I have been fortunate over the past few years to work with great colleagues who are science educators and who taught me so much about how to design and implement inquiry in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math). In January, I had a wonderful opportunity to travel to Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda to explore the state of primary science in these countries and look at where inquiry fit in the current curricula of these countries. I am grateful to Arthur and Marilyn for including me on this journey. Visiting classrooms, watching science, and talking to science teachers during that trip impacted how I designed my class to help find the connection between the content-focused curriculum and inquiry skills and problem solving.

Materials and tested boats

Materials and tested boats

From the beginning, I wanted the students to play and try an exploration just like the children will do. I reviewed some of the units from the African Primary Science Program that we explored as part of our trip to the three East African countries. These units contained some fun activities that used local materials that are cheap or free and easy to obtain. On Friday, I decided to take one of the activities from the Sinking and Floating unit and modify it for preschool age children. The activity was called Boats and Passengers. The students designed and build a boat in groups out of newspaper.

One group's boat

One group’s boat

We then floated the boats in a bowl of water and we added passengers (our bottle caps). In the original activity, they used metal bottle caps which are heavier, but I could only get plastic caps from our water bottles.

Since we needed to add more weight or passengers, but I ran out of bottle caps, so we added the plastic toy I had from a previous activity.

Adding the plastic piece capsized the passengers

Adding the plastic piece capsized the passengers

The students had a lot of fun and I really enjoyed seeing them strategize how to put the passengers in the boat, analyze the different boats they saw groups make and test, and play with each other.

Today, I did a training at a school. It was exciting to see teachers so eager to learn and who were willing to come on a Saturday and listen to me. We discussed co-teaching and using Bloom’s Taxonomy to write objectives and plan lessons. We also discussed some classroom management techniques. Plus, this is the first training I have ever done in bare feet. The teachers were sitting on the floor on grass mats in front of the blackboard and it is customary to remove your shoes when on the grass mats. It was very comfortable. I might try teaching barefoot more often.


It is very rainy here now and the rains are very heavy, but only for 15-60 minutes as a time. The way the water pools and flows down the street is amazing. Keith had written on his blog a few weeks ago that we need to follow the locals regarding the rain and do what they do. We failed to do that today, yet again. We thought that we could get home before the rain got bad as it was only about 10 minutes away. We were wrong. When we saw we were the only people walking down the street, we should have taken it as a sign. We kept walking and ended up soaking wet, and we were still 5 minutes from home. When we got home, our clothes were soaked through and literally dripping water everywhere. Next time, we will get dessert or a drink and wait it out for 20 minutes.

Here is a video of the rain from during our lunch. This was the first downpour of the day. We got wet in the second one.


Thoughts on ethnography in the social media age and some pictures

It is hard to believe that it is already November. First, that would mean that I am already over six weeks into my Fulbright and data collection has not really commenced. Second, it is nice and warm here, which I associate with summer, not fall, especially after living in the Boston area for the last six years. But, I am not complaining. I remind myself when I get hot of the wonderful opportunity and the beach sunsets and rooftop water views.

View from Rooftop restaurant at Jefferji House

View from Rooftop restaurant at Jafferji House


View from Rooftop restaurant at Jefferji House

View from Rooftop restaurant at Jafferji House

Next year I can be cold again, although I have seen that it is currently unseasonably warm in the Midwest and Northeast.
In the week or so since I last wrote a blog entry, I have visited schools to set up contact with principals and get permission to be in schools and classrooms to start my research. I have organized with one school to do a training this weekend as part as of the cooperative relationship that I want to create with schools. I have also started teaching in the last week at the university.
Keith also started teaching and I encourage you to read his blog entries from the last week (www.kamacdonaldphoto.com) to learn whether I am being replaced or not and about his teaching experiences.
My class size is similar to the classes I teach in the US at 30 students, which I am thankful for, because I know that some classes in the university are 100 or 300. My students are also similar to my students at UMass Boston in that they are mostly working in the field of education and teaching in schools in some capacity, some as early childhood teachers. Some also work with early childhood students as well as other levels because even at the younger grades, students specialize in teaching subjects so my students may teach Arabic or Science to children from preschool to grade 2.
As I started to think about how to blog about my research and my time here, the personal stuff was easy, but I realized that the research aspects were different. When I did my dissertation research and was conducting an ethnography, I did not have a blog in 2008-2009. More recently, I have been volunteering with a project in Moshi that I blog about a lot when I am there, but this project is partially service to the field and the project specifically and partially research. I rarely discuss the specific aspects of the research, but frequently discuss the environment and the service aspect. But, that is not an ethnographic project. That is a mixed methods research study with a heavy focus on the quantitative assessment data. The blog entries represented a very different lens than both the qualitative and quantitative data.
An ethnography is different. I am realizing that while I want to share aspects of my experience in preschools, I need to be very careful, both for ethical reasons and research credibility reasons, what I put up on the blog. I am developing a trust with my collaborators and participants and I am following a process. The making meaning of data does not happen instantaneously, like numbers being entered into a spreadsheet and an analysis run, the meaning grows and develops as I record data, discuss with participants, rewrite ideas, discuss again, attempt to triangulate with other sources and member checks, and then draw shared conclusions about the lived experiences of teachers and children in these classrooms. While I could write my notes each day and code them and write memos with conclusions or ideas about the meaning, it is not a complex, descriptive understanding of the given events or lessons without feedback and input from the teachers and other community members. As the title of my research states, I am studying “teacher decision-making.” I can’t evaluate teacher decision making about any aspect of the lesson or environment or their actions, without asking them questions and listening to their perspectives.
So, as part of telling the story of teachers and children in Zanzibari preschools, I will be limiting what I share here about research and it may be somewhat superficial, until I have had time to process and make meaning with my participants and can offer a shared understanding of what I am learning and not just my initial observations. I want to be open to the research process and to developing ideas organically and not assuming that because I wrote it down in a blog it is the correct explanation.
I can offer a simple example by just telling you what I saw in one class, where I am not doing research. The children were learning about the colors of the Tanzanian flag. During this lesson, the children talked about the colors of the flag, how to write and spell the names of the colors, and the meaning of the different colors. For example, green represents the plants and vegetation and yellow represents the gold and minerals present in the country. In addition to discussing the colors, the children also sang a patriotic song that I had heard before and the National Anthem. For this lesson, I can ask the teacher about the goals of the lesson and the decisions on how to present the colors and the meanings, but I also want to know more about the songs and why they are important. The children knew all the words to the songs and sang loudly, even though they were young. Where do they learn them and when? Why is it important to teach this information? I have many questions beyond these that help me to understand the social context of this lesson and the meaning making that is happening for the children and teachers. If I were including this classroom, I would want to know more about these ideas and more. But, I also would not want to present an incomplete picture, either just my classroom observation or my own impressions. Of course, my impressions and thoughts are part of the ethnographic process and will be incorporated into memos in my research file, but again, each piece is only part of the story. For a metaphor, I like to think of each piece as a sentence in the story. I may have five or six sentences that are part of the story but do not connect. I have some idea of the story, but it doesn’t yet make sense. As I ask more questions, gather more data, and incorporate the perspectives of participants and collaborators, they each give me a sentence in the story and tell me where it fits, so that in the end I have a beautiful story that makes sense and shares something significant and meaningful to all of us.

Mchuzi , makande, na wali (a meat stew with some beans and rice. My lunch at SUZA on Friday. It was tasty.

Mchuzi, makande, na wali (a meat stew) with some beans and rice. My lunch at SUZA on Friday. It was tasty.

If you are still with me, I offer you a selection of pictures from my personal adventures in the last week.

The sunrise I saw from my balcony when I got up for work last week.

The sunrise I saw from my balcony when I got up for work last week.