Histories of the Calf Pasture Pumping Station

University Archives & Special Collections, UMass Boston

Calf Pasture Pumping Station, May 7, 2013

May 8, 2013
by eleanormartinezp001
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Making the Calf Pasture Historical Blog

Calf Pasture Pumping Station, May 7, 2013

This blog is the result of a practicum project by UMass Boston graduate students Andrew Donovan, Catherine Shaw and Eleanor Martinez-Proctor. We are students in the history department, focusing on public history and archives. Under the direction of Dr. Jane Becker, we have worked together since January to research and complete this blog as a part of Dr. Becker’s class, “The Art and Craft of Interpretation”.

We have met with the University Archives & Special Collections team, led by Joanne Riley and Dale Freeman, to set goals for the project and discuss structure, tone and content. We have been surprised and excited by the many directions the research for this blog has taken us. It is our hope that this blog raises some awareness about the Calf Pasture Pumping Station, and encourages the UMass Boston community to look towards the future of this important historic structure.

Photo: Eleanor Martinez-Proctor

One view of the original entrance to the Calf Pasture Pumping Station.

April 30, 2013
by andrewdonovan002
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Inside the Abandoned Pumping Station

Since its closure as an active pumping station in the late 1960s, little care has been put into the upkeep of the building.  Currently, most windows are boarded up and a high fence surrounds the property.  The beauty of the building and the mystery of the inaccessible have led many people to wonder what the interior looks like.  Associate Provost Peter Langer has graciously shared the photographs that he took while on tour inside the building in 2011.

 

One view of the original entrance to the Calf Pasture Pumping Station.

 

An interior view of the Calf Pasture Pumping Station.

 

Some of the old pieces of equipment can still be seen inside the pumping station.

A few other people have also been granted access to the building during the last few years and have recorded what they saw inside.  One artist, who refers to himself as Dave, entered the building in late 2008 and documented his visit on his website.

To view these fascinating photographs, please check out Dave’s blog at: http://www.desolatemetropolis.com/dm/archives/abandonment/miscellaneous/calf-pasture-pu/

We also encourage anyone else who has been able to gain access to the inside of the building to share their stories or pictures with us in the comments below!

"King Cholera", an illustration of unsanitary urban conditions at the time of the outbreak.

April 23, 2013
by eleanormartinezp001
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Early Sanitation in Boston and the Evolution of Modern Sewerage Systems

Prior to the development of sophisticated sewerage systems like the one that Boston created in the 1870s, urban water supplies posed a significant health risk to residents. Cholera, dysentery and typhoid were all water-borne illnesses that thrived in the unsanitary conditions that came with dense urban living before modern sanitation. Between 1846 and 1863, several cholera outbreaks struck India, then the Middle East, then Europe and Africa before making their way to the United States. These outbreaks are estimated to have caused over a million deaths in total.

An 1849 map showing the spread of cholera through Boston.

In large American cities during the 17th century, the earliest residents often had a privy at ground level that discharged directly into the street, usually with an open gutter or channel serving as a sewer. Occasionally privies led to cesspools or vaults intended to store the waste until it could be disposed of or until it soaked into the groundOften, however, it remained in the streets, in contact with food and water sources, wandering livestock and foot travel. By the 19th century, many urban areas had adapted a dry sewerage system in which residents transported the contents of their privies to a designated area in order to try and stave off widespread contamination.

“King Cholera”, an illustration of unsanitary urban conditions at the time of the outbreak.

In 1848, a vessel containing over three hundred Italian immigrants who had been exposed to the virus arrived in New York City. Although there were some attempts at quarantine, the city had not seen an cholera outbreak in fifteen years and was unable to contain the virus. It was a matter of months until the cholera pathogens spread from New York City to Boston. The disease spread rapidly through the newly crowded cities, sending residents and public officials into a panic. Medical officials gathered quickly to create strategies for treatment and containment. The Mayor of Boston issued a public announcement advising people to practice excessive hygiene and instructing them to collect waste and rubbish on particular days so that the city could systematically dispose of it. Newspapers published articles on the symptoms of cholera and treatments for it. Nonetheless, the toll taken on the city was significant.

The mayor’s announcement to Boston residents, bringing attention to sanitation issues.

After the outbreak of 1849, and the following outbreak of 1866, Boston began to look towards an overhaul of  the sewerage system to modernize the city and protect its residents. It took several more years to initiate, but by 1875 Boston had a study in place to research pollution and water contamination causing health issues including cholera, typhoid and dysentery. By 1884, a new system was complete and functioning, including the Calf Pasture Pumping Station Complex, which also included the Moon Island treatment facility. This investment in public health had a huge impact on stopping the spread of waterborne diseases in the city and brought Boston into the modern age of sanitation.

Sources Consulted:

  1. Burian, Steven, Stephan J. Nix, Robert E. Pitt, and S. Rocky Durrans. “Urban Wastewater Management in the United States: Past, Present, and Future.”Journal of Urban Technology. no. 3 (2000): 33-62.
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Cholera-Vibrio Cholerae Infection .” Last modified 5 21, 2012. http://www.cdc.gov/cholera/prevention.html.
  3. Rosenburg, Charles. The Cholera Years: The United States in 1832, 1849, and 1866. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Photo Credits:

  1. Cholera Map – http://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/cholera-boston-1849
  2. “King Cholera” – http://www.victorianweb.org/science/health/cholera.html
  3. Cholera Announcement – http://www.flickr.com/photos/cityofbostonarchives/4479753024/in/photostream/

April 18, 2013
by andrewdonovan002
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Deciding the Future of the Calf Pasture Pumping Station

As the city of Boston grew and its residents developed an understanding of the dangers of pollution, the problematic nature of releasing sewage from Moon Island became apparent.  Bostonians called for a cleaner harbor, and by the 1960s and 1970s treatment of sewage was rerouted to Deer Island.  The pumping station, however, was still owned by the Boston Water and Sewer Commission.  During heavy rains, excess street water was channeled to the pumping station, where it was treated behind the station (the side of the building that faces our campus).  Needless to say, few professors or administrators were thrilled to have this process going on right next to the new campus.  Starting in 1999 University officials began negotiating to purchase the property for their own use.  For twelve years UMass Boston officials worked with the city to try and buy the property, but the Water and Sewer Commission was reluctant to give it up.  Selling the Calf Pasture Pumping Station would mean that they would have to find our build a new facility somewhere else in the Boston area, which is a large challenge to be undertaken.  Many local politicians became involved with the debate, including Mayor Menino.  Luckily, in recent years the University, the Water and Sewer Commission, and the City of Boston were able to reach an agreement.  The Calf Pasture Pumping Station was officially purchased by the University.

The next question that presented itself was how to use the newly acquired property.  Many faculty members and administrators had grand ideas about its possible uses. However, many steps have to be taken before any work can begin on renovating the space.  The University would still have to do a structural report of the entire building to assess the work needed to reuse such an old space.  There is no question that the renovation of such an old building would be a very expensive undertaking.  Imagine trying to incorporate modern plumbing, electricity, phone service, and handicap accessibility into a structure from the 1880s.  Because of the huge cost involved, a renovation of the Calf Pasture Pumping Station is still a long way away.  However, many tax incentives for historic renovation are being examined to help offset the cost of future projects. When it is financially possible for the University to renovate and repurpose the building, then the University will decide on the best use for the site.

Recently the University released a large twenty-five-year plan for renovations to the UMass Boston campus, but the pumping station is not included in this plan.  In a recent interview with Vice Chancellor Ellen O’Connor I was able to find out why. When the Master Plan was unveiled in 2007, the University of Massachusetts Boston did not own the Calf Pasture Pumping Station and its lot or the Bayside Expo Center. As a result, these two properties were not included in the 25 Year Master Plan. In addition, throughout the campus many issues became prominent.  A lack of available parking, few available classrooms and labs, and little green space on campus are among the major problems the administration sought to address.  In this context, a renovation of the Calf Pasture Pumping Station was not identified as a major priority.   However, a large effort was made to incorporate the building into the campus redesign.  For example, when road renovations are completed at Columbia Point the new street will bring visitors in front of the pumping station (instead of behind it like the current road).  Although no one can say with certainty what the next use of the Calf Pasture Pumping Station will be, it is clear that the University plans to incorporate the building into the campus in the future.

For the time being, the University has worked to secure the Calf Pasture Pumping Station. The windows have been boarded and the building has been fenced off so there is no general access to it. DeWayne Lehman of the Communications Department at UMass Boston suggested that the site might be used as a “staging area” while the University works on construction of a new roadway around the campus. Until the funds can be secured to repurpose the building, the Calf Pasture Pumping Station will probably remain as is. One thing is certain, however: the historic building may not be torn down or demolished, according to Mr. Lehman, due to its designation as an historical site. The structure itself is safe for now.

This map provides an overview of the location of the Calf Pasture Pumping Station in relation to the city of Boston and other connected sewage facilities.

April 13, 2013
by catherineshaw001
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Other Local Sewage Treatment Facilities, and How They Connect to the Story of the Calf Pasture Pumping Station


View Calf Pasture Pumping Station in a larger map

Included on this particular map are sites related to the Calf Pasture Pumping Station, including:

  • the Calf Pasture Pumping Station (no longer in operation) – includes locations of Shaft Entrance building and Switchhouse as well as main Pumping Station building
  • the Moon Island facility in Quincy, MA  (no longer in operation)
  • the Nut Island sewage treatment facility in Quincy, MA (currently in operation)
  • the Deer Island sewage treatment facility in Boston Harbor (currently in operation)

Moon Island

This image, from the Main Drainage Works of the City of Boston, shows the reservoirs on Moon Island where the untreated sewage from the Calf Pasture Pumping Station waited to be released into the Harbor.

The city of Quincy was home to the Moon Island sewerage facility, which was the final destination for Boston’s sewage for many years until 1984 when the Deer Island facility was updated to handle sewage treatment. The buildings on the island served as “reservoirs” for raw sewage transported from the Calf Pasture Pumping Station. The sewage was collected in the reservoirs until it was released into Boston Harbor with the outgoing tide. Over time, the dumping of Boston’s untreated sewage produced extremely negative results for the Boston Harbor. The harbor was disgustingly polluted, and the environment and local communities both suffered as a result. In 1941, the first steps were taken to address this pollution problem, including the design and construction of a treatment facility at Nut Island.

Nut Island

This is an aerial shot of the Nut Island facility in Quincy, MA. [Photo courtesy of MWRA]

The sewerage treatment plant at Nut Island, in the City of Quincy, opened for operation in May 1952. Construction of the plant began in October 1945 and the total cost of construction was approximately $10,000,000. This sewerage treatment facility was intended to address some of the environmental problems created by the release of untreated sewage into Boston Harbor via Moon Island. However, only primary treatment of sewage initially took place in the Nut Island plant. It was ultimately decided that secondary treatment of sewage was also needed to ensure that there was no negative environmental impact on the harbor. The original 1952 Nut Island plant was demolished after the 1984 lawsuit which found the primary treatment of sewage ineffective. A new Nut Island Headworks facility which was capable of completing secondary treatment of sewage opened in 1998 and is currently in operation. The Massachusetts Water Resource Authority maintains a public park on the island.

Deer Island

This is a current aerial shot of Deer Island in Boston Harbor, home of currently operating sewerage treatment facilities for Boston.

The facility on Deer Island in Boston Harbor is perhaps the most easily recognizable sewerage treatment plant in Boston. The “eggs” which sit out in the Harbor are hard to miss. This plant is the newest addition to the sewerage system for the Boston area. Built in 1968, Deer Island initially served as an outfall sewer for East Boston. A court case between the city of Quincy and the Massachusetts District Commission in 1984 led to the creation of the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority and to revamped sewerage treatment facilities on Nut Island and Deer Island. These facilities were more capable of treating Boston’s sewage so that it was safer to release into Boston Harbor. Unlike the untreated sewage which used to be released from Moon Island, the wastewater which emerges from the Deer Island facility “can be released to the marine environment.”whose words are these?  The sewage which goes through Deer Island undergoes both primary treatment and secondary treatment. [This differs from the primary treatment which the Nut Island facility carried out.]

Sources Consulted:

  1. Massachusetts Water Resources Authority
  2. Kennison, Karl R. “Sewage Works Development in the Massachusetts Metropolitan District.” Sewage and Industrial Wastes 22.4 (1950): 477-89. JSTOR. Web. 06 Mar. 2013.
  3. Hanlon, Joseph B. “Screenings and Grit Complicate Starting Operations at Nut Island Sewage Treatment Plant.” Sewage and Industrial Wastes 26.10 (1954): 1290-1301. JSTOR. Web. 06 Mar. 2013.
  4. Flynn, Kevin C. “Turning the Tide in Boston Harbor.” Water Pollution Control Federation. 57.11 (1985): 1048-1054. JSTOR. Web. 06 Mar. 2013.

Photo Credits:

  1. Map hosted by Google Maps
  2. Clark, Eliot C. Main Drainage Works of the City of Boston
  3. Massachusetts Water Resources Authority
  4. Massachusetts Water Resources Authority
This was one of two main pumps which would raise up the sewage before it headed towards Moon Island.

April 2, 2013
by andrewdonovan002
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Touring the Interior of the Pumping Station

The new sewerage system that was built in Boston during the 1870s and 1880s was designed to take waste from the city and dispose of it miles away from the local population.  The map below shows many sewers that led down to Calf Pasture.  These sewers were designed to work by gravity, so any waste would travel from the high ends in the Boston neighborhoods to the low end at Calf Pasture.  After the sewage reached the point at Calf Pasture, it still had to travel a great distance before it reached its final destination at Moon Island.  To make the last leg of this journey the sewage was raised up thirty five feet by massive pumps before it could flow out towards the island.

This map shows the intercepting sewer that was built to take waste away from the old harbor outlets.

The Calf Pasture Pumping Station was built to house these giant pumps.  A blueprint of the building from 1888 shows how the space in the building was used.  Coal, which was vital to run the boilers and create the steam power, was stored in giant bins in the coal house.  2,500 tons of coal could be stored in the bins at one time, which was vital since the building used over 6 tons of coal each day.  Large boats frequently docked by the pumping station to drop off new coal shipments on the elevated coal run.

This drawing shows how the interior of the pumping station was originally used. 

Coal was fed into large boilers, which would create the steam to run the massive pumps.  Two major Leavitt pumps (like the one pictured below) ran continuously throughout the day.  Each engine was designed to pump up to 25 million gallons of sewage per day.  This large capacity was vital, since the two engines pumped on average just under 37 million gallons each day during the mid-1880s.

This was one of the two main pumps which would raise up the sewage before it headed towards Moon Island.

Sometimes excess storm water pushed the pumps to their limits.  To prepare for any excess water, the engineers installed two additional emergency pumps.  These two smaller storm duty pumping engines were less fuel efficient than the major Leavitt engines, so they were turned on sparingly.  On one occasion, the pumping station had to get rid of 111 million gallons, over three times the daily average.  Inside the Calf Pasture Pumping Station the crew had to continually monitor, fix, and adjust equipment to make for a smooth operation and a cleaner Boston. 

This side view of the pumping station shows the large major pumps and the smaller back-up pumps housed inside the building.

Sources Consulted:

  1. “The Boston Sewer System and Main Drainage Works.”Scientific American. no. 28 (1887): 351.
  2. Clarke, Eliot C. Main Drainage Works of the City of Boston. Boston: Rockwell & Churchill, 1888.

Photo Credits:

  1. Clarke, Eliot C. Main Drainage Works of the City of Boston. Boston: Rockwell & Churchill, 1888.

 

George Albert Clough, in profile.

March 30, 2013
by catherineshaw001
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George Albert Clough, Boston’s City Architect 1874-1884

George Albert Clough in profile. Taken in 1911.

George Albert Clough was the “City Architect” of Boston from 1874 to 1884, and was in that position when the Calf Pasture Pumping Station was built in the early 1880s. Clough was born on March 27, 1843 in Blue Hill, Maine. His father was a shipbuilder and Clough worked as a draughtsman for his father until his death in 1863. At this time, Clough moved to Boston with the intent to study architecture. He was employed and trained at the firm of Snell and Gregerson, where he stayed until 1869. At this time, Clough opened his own architectural office.

In 1874, Clough was appointed the first City Architect of Boston, and he remained in this position for ten years. During this tenure, Clough oversaw and was responsible for the design, construction, and renovation of a large number of public structures in Boston. These included: the Latin and English Schools, the Suffolk County Courthouse, the Congress Street Fire Station, and the Prince School on Newbury Street. Clough was also involved in the design of the water systems at Chestnut Hill and Framingham.[1]

The Prince School on Newbury Street, designed by George A. Clough.

There remains speculation regarding whether or not Clough actually designed the Pumping Station. It is unknown if Clough merely signed off on the plans for the Calf Pasture Pumping Station and oversaw construction, or if he actually designed the building himself. In any case, the Calf Pasture Pumping Station was Clough’s last project as City Architect, due to some controversies which arose during construction. The plans for the construction of the Calf Pasture Pumping Station, published in 1885, very clearly stated that the construction of the facility was to be carried out by workers from Boston, and only workers from Boston. Clough almost immediately “dismissed all masons working on the project,” claiming that they were not from Boston, but rather were from Maine. He then replaced them with his own selection of workers. The City Aldermen believed that the men whom Clough fired actually were from Boston, and had serious doubts that the men Clough hired to replace them were. It does not reflect well on Clough that he was a Maine native. After this controversy over the firing and hiring of laborers on the Calf Pasture Pumping Station project, Clough was subsequently removed from his position as City Architect. It is still unknown whether or not the original employees were from Boston.[2]

After his removal as City Architect in 1884, Clough returned to private practice. In 1905 he established the firm Clough and Wardner. He was responsible for a number of public schools in Massachusetts, New York, Maine, and Pennsylvania. Clough died in Brookline, Massachusetts in January 1911. Fourteen buildings designed by Clough, including the Calf Pasture Pumping Station, are now on the National Register of Historic Places.

Sources Consulted:

  1. National Register of Historic Places Registration Form for the Calf Pasture Pumping Station.
  2. Marwell, Stuart. Calf Pasture Pumping Station. N.p.: n.p.

Photo Credits:

  1. Samuel Atkins Eliot, ed. “George Albert Clough.” Biographical History of Massachusetts: Biographies and Autobiographies of the Leading Men in the State, Volume 3. Boston: Massachusetts Biographical Society, 1911.
  2. Boston Luxury Residential: bostonluxuryresidential.com.
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March 27, 2013
by eleanormartinezp001
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Calf Pasture Pumping Station, a municipal building in Richardsonian Romanesque style

Boston’s Trinity Church, designed in 1872 by H.H. Richardson

The Calf Pasture Pumping Station was designed in classic Richardsonian Romanesque style. When George Clough and his draftsmen were designing the building in the 1870s, the popularity of the style in New England was well-established and increasing, reflected in structures like Trinity Church. The regal overtones in these designs were chosen to reflect the pride that Boston’s leaders took in creating a brand-new modernized sewage system. Unlike today, when municipal buildings are often created to blend in with their surroundings and be “unseen,” the Calf Pasture Pumping Station was designed as a visual landmark, a testament to the city’s advances in technology and sanitation. Although it wasn’t accessible to everyone, it was a public building and could be seen by Bostonians as proof that the huge sewage treatment project had been successful.

Richardsonian Romanesque is characterized by the use of rustic brick and granite in contrasting colors, a Medieval and fortress-like design, and heavy columns and stone arches. Buildings designed by Richardson and in his style were constructed throughout the United States, especially concentrated in the Northeast.  Richardson designed Boston’s iconic Trinity Church. Other local Richardson contributions include the Brattle Square Church, the Quincy Library, a suite of town buildings in the center of Easton, Massachusetts, as well as a number of train stations, commercial buildings, and private residences in Massachusetts.

Who was H. H. Richardson? Born in Louisiana and raised in the south, he eventually studied architecture at Harvard, Tulane and the Ecole de Beaux Arts in Paris. Strongly influenced by the French Romanesque style (itself a hybrid of Gothic and Romanesque architecture), he blended that sensibility with an enthusiasm for Medieval architecture when he returned to the United States from France in 1865. The result was a unique architectural style incorporating rough-hewn granite, stone arches, the mixed use of brick and stone, and castle-like peaked roofs rising above wide columns. Richardson’s first major commission, the Buffalo State Asylum for the Insane, cemented him as a major American architect, and over the next eighteen years he steadily gained prominence, although it was discovered after his death that he had gravely mismanaged his finances and left his family in debt.

Henry Hobson Richardson

What elements of Richardsonian Romanesque are specifically incorporated in the Calf Pasture Pumping Station? Although the outside is mainly built of grey granite (the red brick window-infills are modern), there is extensive use of multicolored brick and stone to create designs and patterns inside. The squat, fortress-like structure is lined with square and arched windows and stone arches. Castle turrets adorn the corners on each level and an imposing peaked roof caps the entire structure.

Historic Photo of the Calf Pasture Pumping Station

Although small changes have been made to the property over the years, it retains its essential character as a Richardsonian Romanesque building. Restoring and repurposing the Calf Pasture Pumping Station would be a valuable way to preserve a piece of H.H. Richardson’s architectural legacy and New England’s history.

Sources Consulted:

  1. Griswold Van Rensselear, Mariana. Henry Hobson Richardson and His Works. New York: Dover Publications, 2009.
  2. Marwell, Stuart. Calf Pasture Pumping Station. Digital reproduction, Nabu Press, 2011.
  3. Phaidon, The House Book. New York: Phaidon Press, Inc., 2001.

Photo Credits:

  1. Louisiana Architecture Bureau: www.la-ab.com
  2. Dorchester Historical Society: http://www.dorchesterhistoricalsociety.org
  3. National Register of Historic Places: http://www.nps.gov/nr/
This photograph, taken in 1860, gives us a glimpse of just how crowded Boston was becoming.
(Source: "Boston, as the Eagle and the Wild Goose See It", 1860, Boston Public Library, Print Department)

March 19, 2013
by andrewdonovan002
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A Brief History of Sewers in Boston

Sanitation was a major challenge for many early American cities, and Boston was no exception.  In the city during the 1700s, sewage was divided into two distinct categories, storm water and human waste. Storm water, such as heavy rainfall, would routinely flood basements and houses.  To avoid this, some areas built small sewers to deal with storm water. For many years, sewers were a project left up to a neighborhood.  Groups of people would decide to build a sewer together and would charge newcomers a fee to access it.  Many times these projects were built haphazardly. Often neighborhoods would do major damage to the local roads while trying to create a sewer.  These sewers were designed on hills to use gravity and then discharged straight into large bodies of water, such as the Charles River or Boston Harbor.

While storm water was taken care of by street sewers, human waste was deposited in privies or outhouses.  These systems consisted of a hole in the ground, usually lined with rocks.  Privies required lots of upkeep, however, making them expensive.  For example, if privies were becoming too full, private companies would be brought in to clean them out.  Other times, however, people would just fill in the rest of the hole with dirt and dig a new privy hole somewhere else on site.

When the city took control of storm sewers in the 1830s, new challenges began to appear.  Many areas around the coast were being filled in to create new neighborhoods and a larger city.  However, these new neighborhoods were around the same elevation as the ocean, so allowing gravity to take care of sewer pipes was almost impossible.  Gates were built to keep seawater from rushing up into the sewer.  These gates, however, while keeping salt water out of the city, kept sewage in the city.  Even when the gates were opened to drain the stagnant water, ocean tides quickly pushed it back to shore.

This photograph, taken in 1860, gives us a glimpse of just how crowded Boston was becoming.

This problem was intensified with the adoption of the water closet.  Similar to our modern flush toilets, a water closet uses water to quickly sweep away human waste.  Early on these water closets would empty into privy vaults, but the added water filled these privies faster and often led to overflowing receptacles.  City planners needed a faster way to get this dirty water out of the city and into the harbor.  When water closets were attached to the already ineffective storm sewers the harbor became even more disgusting.  The City Board of Health described this as a problem facing the whole city, with “large territories” that “have been at once, and frequently, enveloped in an atmosphere of stench so strong as to arouse the sleeping, terrify the weak, and nauseate and exasperate everybody.” (Main Drainage Works of the City of Boston, Pg. 20)  Outbreaks of diseases like cholera, which is contracted through contaminated drinking water, made the push for a cleaner city even more pressing.  The city of Boston would have to quickly address this public health emergency.  As you can see in the map below a new major sewerage system was being proposed and calf pasture was to play a major role in the whole system.

The dark brown areas on this map show where sewage was being released into the harbor. The long red line indicates the full sewer system that was built to alleviate this issue.

Sources Consulted:

  1. Clarke, Eliot C. Main Drainage Works of the City of Boston. Boston: Rockwell & Churchill, 1888.
  2. Melosi, Martin. The Sanitary City: Environmental Services in Urban America From Colonial Times to the Present. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2008.
  3. Tarr, Joel. The Search for the Ultimate Sink: Urban Pollution in Historical Perspective. Akron: University of Akron Press, 1996.

Photo Credits:

  1. “Boston, as the Eagle and the Wild Goose See It”, 1860, Boston Public Library, Print Department
  2. Clarke, Eliot C. Main Drainage Works of the City of Boston. Boston: Rockwell & Churchill, 1888.