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by William Fleurant
13 Comments

739,033 unique computers running BitCoin.

It’s 2012, and epic 2011 was totally being epic 2011.

I recorded 739,033 unique computer IP addresses using the BitCoin Currency over a 3 month period. Plus, According to MTGOX:

49.9883/BTC (BitCoins) is trading@ $6.45978/USD.

That’s $323 for 50 BitCoins. Happy-Happy Joy-Joy.  The Google Maps KML file is also quite rich. If you want to check that one out (and have the GPU/CPU power) contact me:

Snippet of a side project of mine, introducing my independent findings on the Worldwide usage of BitCoin. Data collected on a machine -not- running BitCoin. Read the WiKi to find out how. But, I would start by grepping the source code.

If you enjoyed this choppy post, send some btc to the QR above.

BitCoin is a currency. This currency is so different because anybody can use an Internet connected computer to generate BitCoins. It can be exchanged for other currency, commodities, and a variety of services. Similarly, it can be withdrawn or exchanged like all other currencies. But instead of a leather wallet or plastic credit card, BitCoin uses an encrypted digital wallet. This protected wallet can conduct transactions from a smartphone [3], an ATM machine [4] and of course a personal computer.

This process of using ones computer to generate a BitCoin is in fact called mining. Mining for BitCoins independently is very competitive. It absolutely requires expensive hardware for the ability to gain a substantial return on investment. An initial investment of almost three thousand dollars should generate about 3½/BTC per day. [5]

Snippet of Hipster Data Collection section.

I chose to use GeoIP’s open source release. An additional program was needed to look-up each IP address or Hostname. I found a program called created by a marketing company MaxMind. [14]. I edited the code in GeoIP*/test/test-14.c file to output in a comma-separated valued format, rather than a tabular format.

— test-14.c.orig      2011-10-30 23:28:55.396216967 -0400

+++ test-14.c   2011-10-30 23:29:05.186203262 -0400

@@ -60,7 +60,7 @@

if (gir != NULL) {

ret = GeoIP_range_by_ip(gi, (const char *) host);

time_zone = GeoIP_time_zone_by_country_and_region(gir->country_code, gir->region);

–      printf(“%s\t%s\t%s\t%s\t%s\t%s\t%f\t%f\t%d\t%d\t%s\t%s\t%s\n”, host,

+      printf(“%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%f,%f,%d,%d,%s,%s,%s\n”, host,

_mk_NA(gir->country_code),

_mk_NA(gir->region),

_mk_NA(GeoIP_region_name_by_code(gir->country_code, gir->region)),

In addition to using the free city lookup database, I was also able to utilize a CPAN Perl module to plot waypoints of GPS via their GeoIP API.  Note that before running the code GeoIP city lookup provides, recompiling the source with an output according to their API is required for their bash wrapper (output to ./.libs/ with all other compiled C)

Start a WireShark filter to match ‘dst.port == 53’ and if on a Unix (Apple) or Linux computer the command ‘tcpdump –nqi eth0 udp port 53’ will suffice. Then, all of the captured DNS requests answered will be observed. In this 3 month case, there was a substantial number of IP Addresses which are read by the GeoIP application which in return are sent out for further resolution of origin via the computers default Domain Name Server and finally passed back through GeoIP for a database match and are attributed with such matching variables which are written in CSV format and saved to file.  The reversing of IP address to location took over 24 hours. I created a bash script to monitor this step.

#!/bin/bash

total=744893 ; scale=3 ; sleep=60

file=”/root/bitcoin_sorted04112011.csv”

while true ; do

clear

p=$(wc -l $file | awk ‘{print $1}’)

t=$((${total} – ${p}))

d=$(echo “scale=$scale; $total / $t” | bc)

f=$(tail -n2 $file | head -n1 | cut -d”,” -f 1,11)

s=$((${o}-${t}))

echo “Remaining : $t”

echo “Previous  : $o”

if [ $s -eq 0 ] ; then s=”SERVFAIL” ; fi

echo “Speed     : $s”

echo “Completion: $d%”

echo “Locaton   : $f”

o=$t

sleep $sleep

done

…snip

I recorded the data from the centralized server and logged all connecting, and disconnecting clients.  The data was recorded non-stop.  I used a variety of programming languages to capture, parse and manipulate the data. Ruby, Perl, Sed, Awk, PHP, GPSBabel, GEPLOT, Excel and Microsoft Word programs were utilized. I first used MySQL Database but that was not necessary with the programs and scripts I utilized and wrote afterwards.  It took 45 hours to produce this document with a total of 7,542,601 observations [20].

Thanks for your über focus. It’s Dangerous to go alone! Take this.

[Fig 3.] Plot of 739,033 unique BitCoin Instances. Map created with and Map software Image-WorldMap [18] (Author of software: Leon Brocard) Licensed as Free Software (GNU GPLv2)


 

 

Results

See Supplementary Material at http://is.gd/onxXil for raw data obtained from this study. (Note: IP_ADDRESS field has been censored for privacy, but is available upon request)

Declaration of Testable Hypotheses

  • BitCoin popularity originating from countries where there are physical hardware limitations due to high import tax or other fiscal and or availability issues will be among least reported.
    • False – 195 countries were documented.

 

  • BitCoin will be popular at Universities.
    • True – 385 U.S. Colleges are participating in BitCoin. Based on an estimated 1,735 institutions of higher education [15], I conclude more than ¼ of the Universities in the U.S.A. are actively mining for BitCoin.

 

  • BitCoin participants in countries with high-censorship laws will be unable to participate.
    • True. Among the 56 countries that were unaccounted for were

Libya, Turkmenistan and North Korea.

ANTARCTICA	BONAIRE	BOUVET ISLAND	BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY	CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC
COOK ISLANDS	DJIBOUTI	EQUATORIAL GUINEA	ERITREA	FALKLAND ISLANDS (MALVINAS)
NORTH KOREA	LESOTHO	LIBERIA	LIBYA MARSHALL ISLANDS
NIGER	NORFOLK ISLAND	PALAU	PITCAIRN	SAINT BARTHÉLEMY
SIERRA LEONE	SINT MAARTEN (DUTCH PART)	SOLOMON ISLANDS	SOMALIA	SOUTH GEORGIA AND THE SOUTH SANDWICH ISLANDS
TOKELAU	TURKMENISTAN TUVALU	WALLIS AND FUTUNA	WESTERN SAHARA
CHAD	CHRISTMAS ISLAND	COCOS (KEELING) ISLANDS	COMOROS	CONGO
FRENCH SOUTHERN TERRITORIES	GUINEA-BISSAU	HEARD ISLAND AND MCDONALD ISLANDS	HOLY SEE (VATICAN CITY STATE)	KIRIBATI
MAURITANIA	MICRONESIA	MONTSERRAT	MYANMAR	NAURU
SAINT HELENA	SAINT MARTIN (FRENCH PART)	SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON	SAMOA	SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE
SOUTH SUDAN	SVALBARD AND JAN MAYEN	SWAZILAND	TIMOR-LESTE

[fig.4] List of countries not using BitCoin.

 

  • BitCoin usage in the USA will be more popular on east and west coast due to many new technologies emerging from these coastal areas such as Massachusetts, New York and California.
    • Inconclusive: The graphed data indicates various “Popular” states, which predicted to in fact be 4 of the 10 top in this list. Arguable hypothesis, immature reasoning for anticipated results.

 

  • BitCoin data once collected will show serious implications on publishing IP Addresses.
    • Releasing any information in regards to government networks is beyond this discourse.  There are additional implications due to recent targeted BitCoin attacks on computer networks which essentially steal wallet-Addresses. [28]
More BitCoin propaganda :)


by William Fleurant
0 comments

Google and Nasa back new school for futurists

By David Gelles in San Francisco

Published: February 3 2009 05:02 | Last updated: February 3 2009 05:02

Google and Nasa are throwing their weight behind a new school for futurists in Silicon Valley to prepare scientists for an era when machines become cleverer than people.

The new institution, known as “Singularity University”, is to be headed by Ray Kurzweil, whose predictions about the exponential pace of technological change have made him a controversial figure in technology circles.

Google and Nasa’s backing demonstrates the growing mainstream acceptance of Mr Kurzweil’s views, which include a claim that before the middle of this century artificial intelligence will outstrip human beings, ushering in a new era of civilisation.

To be housed at Nasa’s Ames Research Center, a stone’s-throw from the Googleplex, the Singularity University will offer courses on biotechnology, nano-technology and artificial intelligence.

The so-called “singularity” is a theorised period of rapid technological progress in the near future. Mr Kurzweil, an American inventor, popularised the term in his 2005 book “The Singularity is Near”.

Proponents say that during the singularity, machines will be able to improve themselves using artificial intelligence and that smarter-than-human computers will solve problems including energy scarcity, climate change and hunger.

Yet many critics call the singularity dangerous. Some worry that a malicious artificial intelligence might annihilate the human race.

Mr Kurzweil said the university was launching now because many technologies were approaching a moment of radical advancement. “We’re getting to the steep part of the curve,” said Mr Kurzweil. “It’s not just electronics and computers. It’s any technology where we can measure the information content, like genetics.”

The school is backed by Larry Page, Google co-founder, and Peter Diamandis, chief executive of X-Prize, an organisation which provides grants to support technological change.

“We are anchoring the university in what is in the lab today, with an understanding of what’s in the realm of possibility in the future,” said Mr Diamandis, who will be vice-chancellor. “The day before something is truly a breakthrough, it’s a crazy idea.”

Despite its title, the school will not be an accredited university. Instead, it will be modelled on the International Space University in Strasbourg, France, the interdisciplinary, multi-cultural school that Mr Diamandis helped establish in 1987.


by William Fleurant
2 Comments

Artificial Intelligence fate defined, destiny still a variable.

In then science fiction movie The Terminator 2, John Connor prevents an assassination attempt on a computer scientist when he reads “There is no fate but what we make” etched into a bench. His mother intended to stop the development of quantum computing that inevitably will result in a doomsday end game.

Our destiny with Artificial Intelligence is our fate, computers with artificial intelligence could come to dominate the earth. Our ultimate fate with AI however, is our choice. These are accepted facts by world renown geniuses Stephen Hawkins, Bill Joy and Ray Kurzweil. Bill Joy suggests that early as three to four decades, the development of artificial intelligence will attain the first intelligent robot. These robots are “likely to be able to build machines, in quantity”. This is replication. Ray Kurzweil agrees that Stephen Hawking’s “perception of the acceleration of nonbiological intelligence is essentially on target”. The destiny of an intelligent robot is to emerge as if it were human brain, with “that can remember billions of facts accurately” and “most importantly, the ability to instantly share knowledge”

The emergence of machines beyond our own intelligence is our destiny. Enlightening to my ears as the sun breaks the horizon and meets my eyes, our fate is what we make. Our destiny with computer intelligence is inevitable, however our fate with destiny is dynamic as our executive policy.

Do we have what it takes to change our destiny? When i say we, I mean organics. There are as many doors in our mind as there are stars in the sky and we can never truly predict the future, but when we try, do we see darkness? Do we, right now, have a specific hope for the salvation of humanity. Are we ever going to realize what it means to be human? Why are we here? The universe is either expanding or contrasting exponentially every nanosecond. One way or the other, we need to grow positive and healthy as a global society for the sake of our existence in this universe. If we fail, we will fail as the shortest lived organism on earth.

When computers become aware and claim individuality, they will already be producing themselves, thus replicating and upgrading multiple-modulated intelligences with every newly robot. Singularity will occur. In this fraction of time, “computer AI could come to dominate the world” (Hawkins). I beg to differ. I whole heartily doubt we will not already be physically integrated into this AI realm of intelligence.

Allow me to curve Mr Hawkings’ predictions. Before AI emerges, we will have already accomplished so many incredible things with science. I smiled ear to ear when sensory chips implanted inside the skull of an amputee successfully controlled her robotic arm. I raised my eyebrows in astonishment after reading how our computers are mapped these simple brain functions in real-time. Its implausible to listen to the symphony of brainwaves without placing a sensory chip under the skull.

Realizing what this meant, I came to the theory an AI agent could emerge before 2040. With Internet2, sensory chips, and the nonstop research of inner-neuron connectivity (harvard), scientists could in theory, retrieve and decode the signals created by memory formation and logical thought from the captured brain waves. These captured signals are relayed by the chips under the skull and travel into the DCE Internet2 gateway at a high rate in real time. Monday mornings ethics class at U-Mass Boston never seemed so important for the student involved in this collaboration. Its all about developing computer AI for Hope.

I just explained in my own words and ideas how we will reverse engineer the human brain. By recording the brain creating memory during critical thinking, we will be able to pipe that recorded data back into another persons brain via Internet2.

Does this sound familiar? It may sound far fetched, but we will be able plug our consciousness into i2 (Internet2) and share identical memories. My original ideas may sound like the movie The Matrix but they are the baseline of my hope.

On a more serious and factual backings pertaining to my futuristic interpretation of world where computers do not dominate our fate, i would like to report that on May 16, 2007:

 

Tel Aviv (Israel) – Two scientists from the Tel-Aviv University have shown that information can be stored in live neurons. The research results provide a new way to help understand how our brain learns and store information, but also indicate that a “cyborg-like integration of living material into memory chips” could become a reality in the foreseeable future. (Tel-Aviv)

 

Its not only is it fringe science when they declared their ability to capture and inject memory from a one neuron network to the other, its groundbreaking when the same is true for brains that have expired. I would still like to believe our medical advancements will carry us into an age of adaptive memory.

There are phenomenal happenings where people cannot stop memory function in their brains. They remember their own birth, and recite page in a phone book they saw decades ago.

Our knowledge base will include not only our own but a collective of knowledge. We will be ready for what is defined today as conscious artificial intelligence. Artificial Computer Awareness will emerge perceive just as human brains do, but at quantum speeds. The gateway to this ACA entity requires the biological collective of Artificial Human Intelligence. This divine transfer of information will contain the hands on, sweat and tears and experience of a billion minds along with every single thread of history.

The need to understand what a super intelligent computer is thinking with a new awareness of a billion of minds is our destiny. Stephen Hawking should not suggest the fate of humanity to be that of a computer dominated world. Is this Artificial Intelligence is defined incorrectly? Instead, I think AI should be defined as an enhancement of intelligence in an organism through non-organic elements.

Professor Thomas W. Malone’s objective at the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence states a very intriguing objective, similar to my own.

 

Our basic research question is: How can people and computers be connected so that—collectively—they act more intelligently than any individuals, groups, or computers have ever done before? (CCI/MIT)

 

Another outstanding section of the of the CCI website explores my exact questions of our end game destiny. Its great knowing when my portrayal of humanity’s divine portal to an Ultimate Artificial Intelligence, geniuses leading the research and development share my identical critical thinking questions of what it means to be human.

 


 

(a) What would it mean for a group of people to be "intelligent"? For instance, if a single superhuman intelligence had access to all the knowledge and resources of a company like IBM or General Motors, what would it do? What strategies would it pursue? How quickly could it respond to changes in the marketplace? How productively could it use factories and money? How profitable would it be? And-most importantly-how closely could we approximate the behavior of this imaginary superhuman intelligence by cleverly connecting real people and computers?” (CCI/MIT)

 

 

Scientists and I question traditional definitions of AI. Our fate and destiny equate to a purely dynamic and true artificial intelligence of equilibrium. Our revolving destiny, the fluctuating balance of ultra-intelligence between humanity and technology shall create new anomalies that bridge an infinite level of questioning of new collective “intelligence” limitations.

 

(c) The field of artificial intelligence (AI) has, for decades, tried to create computer programs that can behave as intelligently as humans. From the traditional AI point of view, letting people help a program while it is running is considered cheating. But what if that were fine? What if the goal were to create combined human/machine systems that were more intelligent than either people or machines could be alone?” (CCI/MIT)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

Gruener, Wolfgang. "Scientists close in on “cyborg-like” memory chips." Tel-Aviv University. 29 May 2007. Tigervision Media. 11 Dec. 2008 <http://www.tgdaily.com/content/view/32230/113/>.

 

Joy, Bill. "Why the future doesn’t need us." Wired Magazine. Apr. 2000. 11 Dec. 2008 <http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/8.04/joy.html>.

 

Kurzweil, Raymond. "Response to Stephen Hawking." Kurzweil AI. 5 Sept. 2001. 11 Dec. 2008 <http://www.kurzweilai.net/meme/frame.html?main=/articles/art0288.html>.

 

Kurzweil, Raymond. "The Age of Spiritual Machines: Timeline." Kurzweil AI. 1 Jan. 1999. 11 Dec. 2008 <http://www.kurzweilai.net/meme/frame.html?main=/articles/art0274.html>.

 

Madrigal, Alexis. "Mapping the Most Complex Structure in the Universe: Your Brain.” Wired Magazine. 24 Jan. 08. Harvard University. 12 Dec. 2008 <http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2008/01/connectomics>.

 

"MIT Center for Collective Intelligence." MIT CCI. 2008. MIT. 12 Dec. 2008 <http://cci.mit.edu/about/index.html>.

 

Terminator 2: Judgment Day. Dir. James Cameron. Perf. Arnold Schwarzenegger, Linda Hamilton, Edward Furlong and Robert Patrick. DVD. 1991.


by William Fleurant
0 comments

Pitbull saved, Japan posts Images of Thoughts from Brain

Over-the-weekend News

  • A pitbull that was stabbed in the neck outside my door in Cambridge yesterday. It was saved with my efforts. The man who stabbed the pregnant dog suffered massive headwounds from the owner.

    • Animal Cruelty

      08-9828

      On 12/13/08 at 11:16 AM, a resident of Rindge Ave. stated that while he was walking his pit bull on Rindge Ave., it became involved in an altercation with another dog and the owner of that dog then took a utility knife and stabbed his pit bull in the throat and then fled the scene without making himself known.

       

  • Sunday’s parking meter read FAIL … What an oxymoron.

    • Trail of free-failing meters found on the internets

 

  • Japan stunt101 the Human brain.

 

 

 

Images read from human brain

OSAKA–In a world first, a research group in Kyoto Prefecture has succeeded in processing and displaying optically received images directly from the human brain.

The group of researchers at Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International, including Yukiyasu Kamitani and Yoichi Miyawaki, from its NeuroInformatics Department, said about 100 million images can be read, adding that dreams as well as mental images are likely to be visualized in the future in the same manner.

The research will be published Thursday in the U.S. scientific journal "Neuron."

Optically received images are converted to electrical signals in the retina and treated in the brain’s visual cortex.

In the recent experiment, the research group asked two people to look at 440 different still images one by one on a 100-pixel screen. Each of the images comprised random gray sections and flashing sections.

The research group measured subtle differences in brain activity patterns in the visual cortexes of the two people with a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner. They then subdivided the images and recorded the subjects’ recognition patterns.

The research group later measured the visual cortexes of the two people who were looking at the word "neuron" and five geometric figures such as a square and a cross. Based on the stored brain patterns, the research group analyzed the brain activities and reconstructed the images of Roman letters and other figures, succeeding in recreating optically received images.

(Dec. 11, 2008)

 

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