The Fiske Center Blog

Weblog for the Fiske Center for Archaeological Research at the University of Massachusetts Boston.

June 26, 2014
by Fiske Center
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Despite threat of poison ivy, the search for Deb Newman continues undeterred

After adjusting our strategy for the remainder of the season, our STP survey took us across the street, where the foundation of Lewis Ellis’s home beckoned through the poison ivy. Drs. Trigg and Bolender, Sam, and myself faced the task of marking off the STPs without getting poison ivy on the tapes or ourselves. In an ideal world this would be possible with the aid of a Total Station- our particular model can find the stadia rod all on its own, with minimal human prodding- but with our line of sight blocked by the trees we did it the old-fashioned way, by pacing off every 10 M with tapes. Naturally this entailed dragging them straight through poison ivy, which is why the tapes are now stored in their own bag in a separate bucket until we clean the equipment at the end of the project.

Jessica gets coordinate information from the Total Station

Jessica gets coordinate information from the Total Station

Sam checks the line of sight

Sam checks the line of sight

Back across the street we have officially designated the area around the “barn” as a brand new site because the area doesn’t fall into either of the 1727 allotments of either Deb Newman and Lewis Ellis. Other potential uses for the enclosure include a meeting-house or schoolhouse for the seven Nipmuc families at Hassanamesit in the 18th century, making it even more important that any units dug in this area be given a separate designation in our records.
Dr. Trigg has begun coring inside the enclosure to find the best places for taking soil samples. Like the phosphate analysis she will conduct for the lambing pen, testing these samples will help us narrow down the possible uses for the enclosure.

Dr. Trigg examines a soil core sample

Dr. Trigg examines a soil core sample

Dr. Trigg removes another sample while Carolyn (middle) places a flag in the previous one and Janice (left) prepares to do the same

Dr. Trigg removes another sample while Carolyn (middle) places a flag in the previous one and Janice (left) prepares to do the same

June 25, 2014
by ericjohnson002
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How do we know where to dig?

Good question. Luckily, historical archaeologists have a lot of resources to help us out. Long before the team opened excavations on the perimeter of Burial Hill, we collected old maps and conducted geophysical surveys to help us determine the precise coordinates of each excavation unit.

The historical record suggests that the first Plymouth Colony fort was located at the top of Burial Hill and the palisade walls ran down the slope of the hill. According to early accounts, the walls of the fort were diamond shaped, and the main East/West street ran along modern-day Leyden St. in downtown Plymouth. Since archaeological sites are often disturbed by construction from later periods, we used historic maps provided by Plimouth Plantation to find areas with the best potential for the preservation of 17th-century material.

The eastern perimeter of Burial Hill has two qualities which make it a good place to start looking. First, the modern landscape is a larger open area, making it a good location for a geophysical survey. Second, according to old maps, we know there were buildings running along School St. in the 19th and early 20th centuries and probably earlier. If these buildings were built on top of older deposits, they may have preserved 17th-century material for us to find.

PlymouthOverlay

Outline of Plimouth Plantation over an aerial photograph of downtown Plymouth

Brian Damiata, the geophysicist on the team, analyzed data from the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey conducted in 2013 to help us determine where to place our excavation units. Our first priority is to not disturb any potentially unmarked graves on Burial Hill. Luckily, GPR can identify unmarked graves so that we can avoid them. The GPR survey also showed anomalies which appeared to be the foundations of 18th and 19th century buildings along school street a safe distance away from the graves on Burial Hill.

Map overlay of previous structures on historic maps and projected excavation units.

Map overlay of previous structures from historic maps, aerial photography, and projected excavation units.

So far, the historical data and geophysical data have worked hand in hand to help us figure out where to dig next. Now that we have opened up a few excavation units, archaeological data can help us make even more informed decisions.

June 23, 2014
by Fiske Center
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Changing Strategies at Deb Newman

As a general rule archaeologists have to be flexible, willing to rework their hypotheses and sampling strategies over the course of a project. Though we recovered nails, brick, and creamware from our 2 X 2 M units, which date our deposits to the correct time period, we aren’t satisfied that that particular area is the site of Deb Newman’s late 18th/early 19th c. home. To determine if the artifacts we found in our original excavation area were the result of artifacts washing down slope from a possible barn foundation higher up Keith Hill, we’ve begun digging shovel test pits every 10 M between the foundation and treeline. The test pits were based in part on a map created in ArcGIS by Doug Bolender of the Fiske Center showing statistically significant clusters of “A horizon”, the geographic strata where material culture related to Deb Newman would be located, from the 2010 and 2011 shovel test pits (pictured below).

Map of the Deb Newman site showing areas where STPs with deeper than normal “A horizon” (cultural strata) are clustered around one another (areas in black, “HH” on key”), potentially indicating human activity; the background (Natural_STPs 1 Value on the key) shows general “A horizon” depth across the area between the road and treeline)

Map of the Deb Newman site showing areas where STPs with deeper than normal “A horizon” (cultural strata) are clustered around one another (areas in black, “HH” on key”), potentially indicating human activity; the background (Natural_STPs 1 Value on the key) shows general “A horizon” depth across the area between the road and treeline)


Danny works on an STP

Danny works on an STP

Steph and Diana screen for artifacts

Steph and Diana screen for artifacts


Down in our original excavation area Kristina and Shala are finishing up the most challenging unit

Down in our original excavation area Kristina and Shala are finishing up the most challenging unit


Kristina and Shala work on a profile of their unit

Kristina and Shala work on a profile of their unit


While in another context the color change in the soil might suggest that these stones were used for drying fish or meat, the lack of artifacts point to the color resulting from excessive iron in the soil from the stones. The area also has the potential to be a riverbed, but we won’t know more until Dennis Piechota, the conservator at the Fiske Center who specialized in micromorphology, micro-excavation and elemental analysis of artifacts and the soil matrix, is able to examine them.
By: Jessica Rymer

June 21, 2014
by John Steinberg
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Front Page Boston Globe Story on Archaeological Excavations in Plymouth: The mystery of where Plymouth got its start

Boston Globe article about work in Plymouth

Boston Globe article about work in Plymouth

There is a wonderful page 1 story in the Boston Globe today about the work in Plymouth.  Dave Landon does a great job in the attached video explaining the work.  There are also a series of very nice photos that go with the story.  If you have trouble with the Globe site, you can see a printed version here.  The Author, David Filipov, has done a number of great stories.

June 20, 2014
by John Steinberg
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EU7 3D views of the bricks

EU7We were out taking pictures of the bricks in Excavation Unit 7 on Burial Hill in Plymouth yesterday and Doug Bolender put together another 3D view.  This one is can be viewed on the web, and does not require downloading like the last one.   EU7 is where, according to the 1874 Beers map stood a school, probably the one that gave the street its name.  You can see the whole map at the Boston Public Library (Leventhal Map Center).

June 19, 2014
by John Steinberg
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Ground Penetrating Radar and Excavation Unit 3

Excavation Unit 3 superimposed over GPR

Excavation Unit 3 superimposed over GPR

In this GPR Slice image, made by Brian Damiata, hard reflectors from the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey are shown in yellow and red.  In this GPR- slice, blue areas did not return any energy.   This slice is from about 90 cm below the ground surface.  The location of the hard reflectors (red and yellow) suggest that the stone wall excavated in EU3  probably continues to the southeast.   EU3 is the excavation with the overhead image superimposed.  If you look closely, you can see a row of stones in the east.  You can see more of EU3 in a previous blog post.  The red lines in the jpg are our best estimate as to the location of structures in the 1874 map, also described in a previous blog post.

June 19, 2014
by John Steinberg
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Plymouth Burial Hill 3D view of Excavation Unit 3

The wall at the bottom of this unit is probably associated with one of the stable structures seen in the old map of burial hill and described in a previous post on this blogBurial_Hill_EU3Doug Bolender has created a 3D PDF that you can download and move around.  The file will not work in the web browser (it will just be a blank page).  You have to download it to your machine, and open it in a new version of Acrobat and allow it to run.    Once up and running you can look down into the buckets, as well as the excavation.

June 18, 2014
by Fiske Center
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An Interdisciplinary Effort: Soil Chemical Analysis at Deb Newman

The Hass Woods project has been an interdisciplinary effort from the start, and we are lucky to have Dr. Heather Trigg, a paleoethnobotanist from the Fiske Center, working with us at Deb Newman this season. In addition to instructing students and digging, Dr. Trigg has been hard at work collecting soil samples for phosphate analysis from a lamb pen associated with the site.

Dr. Trigg demonstrates how to use a soil core while Janice looks on

Dr. Trigg demonstrates how to use a soil core while Janice looks on

Discovered during the initial site survey, the lamb pen would have been used to keep newborn lambs from wandering off. To test this interpretation, Dr. Trigg will be taking soil samples for analysis at the Fiske Center.

Carolyn shows off a recovered soil sample

Carolyn shows off a recovered soil sample

The rest of us have continued digging with the goal of finishing our units this week in order to begin an STP survey of another area as our search for the foundation continues.

Steph and Diana draw a profile of their recently completed unit

Steph and Diana draw a profile of their recently completed unit

By Jessica Rymer

2014 Excavations at Hassanamesit Woods Begin

June 16, 2014 by Fiske Center | 0 comments

The 2014 field season at Hassanamesit Woods has commenced! Welcome back to the Hass Woods blog- my name is Jessica Rymer, a graduate student in the Historical Archaeology MA program at UMass. I’ll be posting throughout the next few weeks from the field school at Hassanamesit Woods. This summer four undergraduate students and five graduate students (including myself) will spend the next five weeks under the direction of Dr. Steve Mrozowski (accompanied by Dr. Heather Trigg) investigating the potential site of the of home of Deborah Newman, a Nipmuc woman who, according to local history, was said to live “across the road” from Lewis Ellis, whose father Amos Ellis helped in constructing the house of Sarah Burnee that have been the focus of the previous year’s excavations. Using the data recovered from an intensive STP survey that the Fiske Center conducted in 2010, we’ve begun placing 2M X 2M units around the test pits with the highest concentrations of creamware, brick, and nails, artifact categories which suggest that a late 18th/early 19th c. home was somewhere in the vicinity.
Of course before excavations could begin in earnest, we had some cleaning to do:

From front to back:  Kristina, Shala, and Janice use machetes and loppers clear the area around a test pit

From front to back: Kristina, Shala, and Janice use machetes and loppers clear the area around a test pit


 Carolyn repairs a shaker screen before it goes into the field

Carolyn repairs a shaker screen before it goes into the field


Kristina sharpens a machete

Kristina sharpens a machete


Steph repairs a pair of loppers

Steph repairs a pair of loppers


Dr. Heather Trigg instructs students in how to put in a 2 X 2 M unit

Dr. Heather Trigg instructs students in how to put in a 2 X 2 M unit


Kristina, Carolyn, and Dr. Trigg screen for artifacts while Janice (back), Kristina and Diana work on making more dirt

Kristina, Carolyn, and Dr. Trigg screen for artifacts while Janice (back), Kristina and Diana work on making more dirt


Kristina, Carolyn, and Dr. Trigg screen for artifacts while Kristina and Diana (front) continue digging.  Dr. Mrozowski and Janice discuss her unit (back)

Kristina, Carolyn, and Dr. Trigg screen for artifacts while Kristina and Diana (front) continue digging. Dr. Mrozowski and Janice discuss her unit (back)

So far digging in the rocky New England soil has been a challenge, but since every large rock has the potential to be a part of the foundation we’ve kept going. As part of our sampling strategy Dr. Heather Trigg has been taking soil samples; stay tuned for a post on this fits in to our search for the foundation.
By Jessica Rymer